Monday, March 23, 2020
Therefore, it is crucial that you join in co-curricular activities, as it brings many benefits. First and foremost, co-curricular activities play a vital role in providing knowledge and experience to the students. For instance, students will have the opportunity to gain new experiences when they join a camp. They would learn to be independent. They would also be able to gain extra knowledge such as inventing gadgets from recycled objects and all sorts of other Hellenizing activities. Sometimes, the new experiences gained will teach you to be more matured. Next, active participation in co-curricular activities will help a person to develop holistically. This is because students should not only focus entirely on their studies and instead, should learn to balance between their studies and their involvement in extra curricular activities. Through active participation in the activities, the school would be able to produce students who are smart, intelligent, bold and inquisitive instead of just bookworms. We will write a custom essay sample on The Importance of Participating or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Furthermore, participation in co-curricular activities can also help you to release stress and boredom.I am sure you will feel stressed, especially when the examinations are just around the corner. Hence, by joining clubs or sports in your school, you can set aside your problems for a while. This in turn will make you feel better and less tense, as all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. Besides that, co-curricular activities will help you to be fit and healthy. All of the toxic substances in your body will be removed whenever you sweat by playing sports and carrying out activities that require a lot of physical movements.Therefore, you will feel better and be more focused in class. You will also have the opportunity to apply things you have learned in the classroom in real life. For example, if you join the Physics Club, you might have a chance to build a rocket based on the physics principles that was taught in class. On the other hand, if you join the life skills club, chances re,you will get the opportunity to build handicrafts or learn how to cook properly.These are rare opportunities that you might not get when you are not actively participating in clubs and societies. Moreover, your chances for further studies are also enhanced, bayou are active in sports, clubs and societies. With an increasing number of students excelling academically, the competition to get into universities is tougher. The universities are not only looking for students who are academically good, but also who are confident and bold. These attributes could only be gained through co-curricular activities.Overall, even though the participation in co-curricular activities are usually seen as less important than the academic subjects, they have been proven to benefit the students in many ways. Co-curricular activities form the core of a students life and pave a brighter future for those who excel in them. So, do not hesitate to join any co-curricular activities now and be an active member who contributes to the club as well as the school. That is all from me today, thank you.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Using the example (simplified) bank balance sheet below show and explain why the Leverage And Capital Ratios are changed as a result of a 6m write-down in mortgages Essay Example
Using the example (simplified) bank balance sheet below show and explain why the Leverage And Capital Ratios are changed as a result of a 6m write Using the example (simplified) bank balance sheet below show and explain why the Leverage And Capital Ratios are changed as a result of a 6m write-down in mortgages Essay Using the example (simplified) bank balance sheet below show and explain why the Leverage And Capital Ratios are changed as a result of a 6m write-down in mortgages Essay The initial balance sheet shows that the total equity is Ã £16m and the total asset is Ã £305m. After the written-down of Ã £6m on mortgages, the mortgages have converted Ã £120m into Ã £114m so that the new total assets change to Ã £299m. In addition, due to the decrease of total assets, the total equity also turned into Ã £10m In order to make the total equity equal to total assets. As we know, the formula of leverage ratio and capital ratio is: Leverage ratio= Total Equity/Total Assets *100% Capital ratio= Total Equity/Risk-adjusted assets *100% So, as the changing of total equity and total assets, the leverage ratio also change at the same time. Due to the changing of mortgages, the risk-adjusted assets of mortgages also change so that the total risk-adjusted assets turned into Ã £191m compared with previously figure Ã £194m. Therefore, capital ratio has changed attributable to changing of total risk-adjusted assets. In a word, the leverage ratio and capital ratio are changed as a result of a Ã £6m write-down in mortgages. Part B: In the event that this write-down in mortgage assets was widespread; explain what measures all banks would have to take in order to rebuild their capital ratios back to the required minimum of 8%. Answer: 1. The first method is by increasing total equity (with no change in risk-adjusted assets) 1. As we know, the capital ratio = total equity/ risk-adjusted assets *100% From the table, we can see the current capital ratio=5.24%.the target capital ratio =8%.given the risk-adjusted assets Ã £191, we suppose to find how much total equity is need to achieve capital ratio of 8%? Assume X=total equity. 8%=X/Ã £191m*100% X=Ã £15.28m. In conclusion, total equity most increase to Ã £15.28m to achieve the capital ratio of 8% with no change in risk-adjusted assets. 1. From the table we can see, given the bank hasÃ £10 in total equity. From 1 X is given Ã £15.28m. X-Ã £10m=Ã £15.28m-Ã £10m=Ã £5.28m. In conclusion, bank needed additional equity Ã £5.28m from the existing equity of Ã £10m to achieve the total equity of Ã £15.28m so that the capital ratio of 8% can be achieved. 1. The second method is by decreasing risk-adjusted assets (with no change in equity) 1. With no change in equity, we calculate the total risk-adjusted assets. Using Ã £10m in equity The total risk-adjusted assets=Ã £10m/8% *100%=Ã £125m. In conclusion, assume total equity is fixed; the total risk-adjusted assets have to decrease to Ã £125m in order to achieve the capital ratio of 8% 1. Form the table, we can see, current risk-adjusted asset =Ã £191m and the target risk-adjusted asset =Ã £125m. The change of risk-adjusted asset =new risk-adjusted assets-old risk-adjusted assets=Ã £125m- Ã £191m=-Ã £66m. In conclusion: the total risk-adjusted assets must reduce by Ã £66m in order to get Ã £125m so that the capital ratio of 8% can be achieved. 2. We now have to change the composition of Assets to make risk-adjusted assets=Ã £125m Because the risk weight of loans and advances is 100%. We need to make it smaller, old loans and advances=Ã £125m, new loans and advances=old loans and advances +changes in composition of assets=Ã £125m+ (-Ã £66m) =Ã £59m. In conclusion, to achieve the value of risk-adjusted asset=Ã £125m, we need to reduce the loans and advances byÃ £66m in order to get the new loans and advances =Ã £59m 1. In order to achieve liabilities=assets, we also need to change the value of cash in tills. New cash in tills balance= current cash in tills + change in composition of assets=Ã £5m+Ã £66m=Ã £71m. In conclusion, to achieve the value of risk-adjusted asset=Ã £125m, we not only need to reduce the loans and advances, but also need to increase the cash in tills by Ã £66m in order to get the new cash in tills =Ã £71m. By reduce the loans advances and increase the cash, which will reduce the lending. The liquidity ratio will increase lead to the credit crisis. [C]New balance sheet with the capital ratio of 8% Liabilities Ã £m Assets Ã £m Risk Weighting Risk Adjusted Assets (Ã £m) Deposits Cash Current accounts 195 Cash in Tills 71 (0%) 0 Time deposits 94 Money at call 5 (0%) 0 Total Liabilities 289 Available for sale assets Gove Bonds ; Bills 10 (10%) 1 Other Bonds ; Bills 40 (20%) 8 Equity Shareholder Capital 7 Other assets Retained Profits 3 Loans and Advances 59 (100%) 59 Mortgages 114 (50%) 57 Total Equity 10 Total Liabilities + Equity 299 Total Assets 299 Total Risk- Adjusted 125 UK Liquidity Ratio 3.34% Leverage Ratio 3.34% Capital Ratio 8% Part C: Explain how, in rebuilding capital ratios, aggregate demand will change, as a result the economy as a whole, could slide into recession. AnswerÃ ¯Ã ¼ The bank starts to rebuild the capital ratios by reducing the risk-adjusted assets. Under the reducing the risk- adjusted assets, it will change the composition of the assets by reducing the loans ; advances and increasing cash in tills. It will cause the overflow of the liquidity. Bank is suddenly reducing profitability. Loans become lesser and lesser to firms, individuals and so on. The bank refused to give loans to others in order to rebuild the capital ratio to achieve a higher figure, which will cause the credit crisis. Assuming the entire bank do that, the aggregate will fall due to the falling of the consumption of domestically produced goods ; services and the investment. All of these are depend on loans. For people, they want to take loans from banks by buying cars and house. They also want to pay the educational fees. For the firms, they are in trouble they cannot finance the loans. Sometimes, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have enough money to buy the new equipment and pay the salary t o their employees, so they take loans from banks, the issue is they cannot take enough loans from banks so as to firms are tending to make less investment. Due to rebuilding capital ratio, banks donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to give loans to others, the Cd will fall down. As a result, the economic will go into the recession. The economic will experience a huge fall in terms of their aggregate demand. Also, the banks start to rebuild the capital ratio by increasing the equity. Through increasing retained profit, it can delay the payment of dividends and increase its loans rates ; bank charges, or by laying off staff and closing underperforming branches so that it will cause the increasing of the unemployment rate and reducing spending. Everything is tending to fall. Spending lesser and lesser, the aggregate demand will fall. Thus, GDP will fall leading to the recession.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Media News Versus You Tube - Essay Example The images posted on this site by the soldiers have made most Americans believe that the war on Iraq was not worth the loss of US lives. They need a full picture of Iraq to see what the gain is for that loss of life but the restrictions on media coverage do not allow this. The news media has been around for a very long time whereas, YouTube, the popular free video hosting website founded in February 2005, began its humble beginnings in a garage and offered the public a preview of the site in May 2005. And just six months later, YouTube made its official debut. Although this is an extremely large and popular site, it has met with much criticism. Videos filmed by amateur first gained popularity during the terrorist attacks on London subways and buses last summer, when traditional news organizations as well as informal websites utilized the photos and images supplied by witnesses. Now it is estimated that 100 million clips are viewed on YouTube daily and 65,000 videos uploaded every 24 hours. According to Nielsen/Netratings, the site has almost 20 million visitors each month, out of which around 44% are female, 56% male, while the most dominant age group is 12-17. Websites like YouTube, true to its motto, "broadcast yourself" allows people referring to them as "citizen journalists" to upload their own videos on an infinite array of subjects and has enabled anyone with a video camera or cell phone, live action films or written reports on news events. In relation to the Iraq war, the streamline media gives optimism to the viewers and shows the brighter side of the war, while the stories told by American soldiers in their homemade videos uploaded on this website, present a different picture. Beyond the philosophical dimensions of the global television communications, it is a close-up medium which readily involves emotions and is most effective in revealing the plights of the people. But troops who have served in Iraq and Afghanistan are hearing the message that they should carefully consider before they upload any videos on the website. As opposed to controlled media, YouTube has given access to the citizen journalists to provide first hand accounts of major events even though they are less journalism than the raw material generated by amateurs, which a skilled and trained journalist should know how to weigh, analyze, describe and explain. Therefore, one cannot deny the fact that to treat an amateur as equally credible as a professional, would be to erode the line between raw material and finished product. Many people believe that editorial gate keeping is a form of censorship if not mind control, and the explosion of the internet; giving the notion that 'information wants to be free' has made traditional journalism a ready target. To its proponents, citizen journalism represents a democratization of media and a shattering power of the unelected elite as it not only challenges the notion of journalism in journalism, but completely circumvents it. But there are people who are of the view that however wrapped in idealism, citizen journalism forms part of a larger attempt to degrade, even to disenfranchise journalism as practiced by trained professionals. However, there is no question that the soldier behind the
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Company Case Notes Payless Shoe Source - Assignment Example The essay "Company Case Notes Payless Shoe Source" talks about the Payless Shoes on the fashion market. It was in 1995 that Payless Shoes made drastic changes in its marketing mix and pricing strategy. With fierce competition from Wal-Mart, Payless focused on collaborating with well known marketing developers and designers to target the young women. As the company launched branded shoes, it shifted from its previous EDLP (everyday low pricing) strategy to offer shoes at prices as high as $60, thus selling at higher prices than Wal-Mart and other low price stores. Psychological pricing is the strategy of taking advantage of customersÃ¢â¬â¢ emotional responses to products with different prices. It is a strategy adopted by most retailers who fix their product prices at odd amounts like $1.99. It gives the customers illusion that the price is closer to $1 whereas in reality it is as good as equal to $2. Since Payless has to sustain their market share within growing competition from gia nt retailers like Wal-Mart therefore it has increased their price by collaborating with branded shoes Aerosport, Airwalk, American Eagle, Dexter Comfort, and so on (Ã¢â¬Å"Payless: All BrandsÃ¢â¬ ). In order to refrain from shocking the customers with sudden increase of prices, the common tactics could have been the above mentioned psychological pricing strategy. However, Payless did not pay attention to this and did not implement any such strategies. Payless shoes targets the young women to sell stylish and fashionable shoes at affordable prices.
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Our Religion Does Not Define Us Theology Religion Essay Our religion does not define who we are regardless to popular belief. Our religion is only a part of who we are if we let it. Not everyone that practices a religion knows everything about it or even accepts it. Some people have a religion just because everyone else has one, and most people have a religion because they were brought up in it. The human mind is easily convinced to do and believe things when it is young and fragile. As a child, you listen to your parents, obey them and learn from most things they do we stand on the shoulders of others to get to the next level (Fraklin). Most people choose their religion based on the religion their parents practiced. Our religion could affects many aspects of our lives depending on how deeply we believe in it; this includes the way we see others, the way we act, and the way we influence those around us. Our faith in our religion can always be seen in the way we live our lives, nevertheless it does not define who we are. As humans, we learn everyday of our lives, introducing us to new things which indirectly change our point of view on certain things in our lives; we begin to see things in different ways and accept somethings we thought was wrong but some people still somehow let their religion come in the way of how they see these things, even though they have a different op inion on some matters they feel like they are obligated to believe whatever their religion asks of them. For those who accept this changes, it could bring about a big difference in their life. I believe no one can tell what religion is right or wrong because no one knows everything. Most people like to be right in most situations, so whenever they are asked what religion is right, it is quite normal for them to say theirs is right. Not everyone tries to realize that the same way they think their religion is right could be the way another person sees his as the right one The easy confidence with which I know another mans religion is folly teaches me to suspect that my own is also (Mark Twain). With what we know, religion might not even exist, which is why I believe that everyone should respect each others point of view on any situation God has no religion (Mahatma Gandhi), personally I think all that matters to God, if there is one, is the good and bad that people do. It is easy to t hink someone is wrong, when you think you are right even though you might be wrong. An example is the apology of Socrates. Socrates was a simple minded person who never thought himself to be more than he was. The fact that he acknowledge his ignorance makes him a wise person (Plato), most believers are ignorant of other religions, yet they believe their religion is the right one while others are not even though they do not know much of the one they criticize. Children learn most things from their parents and those around them. Growing up, children are taught what is right and wrong by their parent or guardian, and that helps them in deciding for themselves when they are adults. It is very common for a parent to take their children to where they worship, and as they grows they learn from their parents faith, making them believe in their religion. The reason why people rarely change their religion is because they grow in it and that makes it more of a lifestyle to them rather than something they learned. Most religions like Christianity has been made in a way that you are not allowed to question some of the things you might not agree with. Some of the stories and rules we learn from our religious books sometimes seem wrong and sometimes we might find some not quite sensible, but we have also learned that we have no right to question the things that happened in them, we just have accept it. The story of Job is one that should bring every Chr istian to question their God as to why he made a man go through so much, just to test his fate. Job was a faithful Christian, but he was tested by Satan with the permission of God; he lost everything he had and was terribly ill, with no help from anyone (The story of Job). Everything that happened to him is something no Christian would accept from any other person, it would not matter what reason they might have to do that, it will be considered bad, but when it is God that did this to a man just to test his faith, they are not allowed to question him. Even though Job went through a lot of things, he never questioned God. When believers feel angry towards God, most of them think it is a wrong feeling and they are not able to express themselves to other believers because they feel judged, guilty, and ashamed (julie and joshua). Every religious belief has its good and bad parts, some that we agree on and others that we dont, but the fear that has been put into us from when we were young is what makes us accept it even though we have other opinions. The fear of a god could make anyone do anything. The story of how Abraham is a great example. Abraham was willing to kill his only child because God asked him to do so, even though that was his only child and he knew he will never have any other child, he was still willing to kill his child And it happened after these things that God tested Abraham. And He said to him, Abraham! and he said, here I am. And he said, take, pray, your son, your only one, whom you love, Isaac, and go forth to the land of Moriah and offer him up as a burnt offering on one of the mountains which I shall say to you (Abraham and Isaac). Despite how deep our faith might be and how well we understand a religion, we still put in our own interpretation to it just to make it suit us. Lailak ask ed are we supposed to interpret the Bible in our own way?. Lone77star answered that we all have our own path to choose, he explained by saying he had his own interpretation and would not want anyone to follow it blindly (hubpages). Not every Christian that reads the Bible understands it, and not every Muslim that reads the Quran understands it. This is the reason there are pastors and Islamic leaders teaching their religion. Even though this people are seen as the holy ones, they also interpret the religion in a way they see fit. Religion is not just one thing, it is a way of life in which people design for themselves; everyone has their own unique religion because we all see and interpret things in different ways. Some people believe they are Christians because they go to the church. This is simply their interpretation of being a Christian Anyone who thinks sitting in a church can make you a Christian must also think sitting in a garage can make you a car (Garrison. goodread), it d oes not matter how much a person attends a church or pray, it is their heart towards things that defines them. The actions they take and how they deal with things. The most annoying people are those who try to get people into their religion; this is basically asking others to think like they do and see things from their own perspective. Christians believe that God created humans And God created the human in his image, in the image of God He created him, male and female He created them (Genesis). Christians accept and believe this theory. In some way this affects their way of living because they think they owe their existence to someone. They live most of their life trying to please someone they have never seen Religion has convinced people that theres an invisible man living in the sky. Who watches everything you do every minute of every day. And the invisible man has a list of ten specific things he doesnt want you to do. And if you do any of these things, he will send you to a special place, of burning and fire and smoke and torture and anguish for you to live forever, and suffer, and suffer, and burn, and scream, until the end of time. But he loves you. He loves you. He loves you and he needs money (George Carlin). The misinterpretation of religion could lead to disagreement, conflicts and even death. When people have different interpretation of what their religion says, it is very easy for them to disagree on most things. Some Muslims have been killing for years, and they believe what they are doing is right. They believe they can do anything as long as they ask for forgiveness. Religion has caused most of the wars the world has ever known. God says we should love our neighbors has we love ourselves. Anyone could interpret this the way they want, some would say it means to love your family, and others might think it means to love everyone love your fellow as yourself (livneh). Some people believe in God just so they have someone to blame when they are in trouble When people experience traumatic or highly stressful events, a common response is to blame God (Julie and Joshua), to these people God is just a figure they run to whenever they are in trouble or need someone to blame for their own fau lts and weaknesses. They do not fully understand the concept of God, but they feel that they need him. Our religion does not define who we are, what makes us who we are is what we accept our religion to be, our interpretation of it, and the choices we make through them. The Bible teaches about loving one another love your fellow as yourself (livneh), this is hard sometimes because some people are just hard to love. No matter how you try to get close to them, they still somehow do not accept you. Some Christians are this way, even though the bible says they should love one another. The bible also mentions not having hate towards a fellow human you shall not hate your kinsman in your heart (livneh), yet there are several Christians who have hate in their heart towards someone in their family, and people in the church. Even though the law of the bible ask them to love and never hate, this does not define them.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Gladiators were mostly unfree individuals either condemned criminals, prisoners of wars who had lost their citizenship rights, although, some of them were volunteers who were mostly freedmen or very low classes of freeborn men who chose to be a slave for monetary rewards or for the fame. Gladiators were brought for the purpose of gladiatorial combat and would endure branding, chains, flogging or death by the sword and subjected to a rigorous training, fed on a high-energy diet, and given expert medical attention.Gladiators were famously popular in ancient from for seven centuries, from the 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD fairly late in the Public occupied a prominent position in roman society, they would fight in massive amphitheatres, the most famous being the Colosseum in Rome. The games slowly transformed into spectator, a form of public execution and was seen by the public as entertainment in simpler, rougher times. It escalated as the Romans valued the art of killing and ac ted as a distraction for its citizens, allowed them to release their violent impulses and aggression within a completely separate social realm.We can assume that there were gladiatorial fights before this in Rome but were not recorded and the tradition of gladiatorial combats did not evolve in Rome but considered to have come from the Etruscans. The first recorded gladiatorial fight was in Rome during 264 BC at the funeral of Decimus Iunius Brutus Pera and was organised by his sons to pay honour to their deceased father. Three pairs of gladiators fought against each other to the death at his funeral pyre. It was believed that the ritually shed blood reconciled the dead with the living.We can assume that there were gladiatorial fights before this in Rome, but were not recorded and the tradition of gladiatorial combats did not evolve in Rome but considered to have come from the Etruscans. In Tomb 7 of the necropolis Gaudo near Paestum shows fighting between two men wearing attic helme ts of South-Italian type, armour and shields attacking each other with spears. This painting could depict the early types of gladiators and provides evidence that suggest Campania may be the origins of gladiators since the first amphitheatre was built there.Also, the historians Livius, Strabo and Silius Italicus state that at Campanian banquets gladiators fought to entertain the evening party. Gladiators were formed into troupes called Ã¢â¬Å"Familia gladiatoriumÃ¢â¬ and owned by a person called Ianista who recruited, arranged for training and made decisions of where and when the gladiators fought. The gladiators were first asses by a Lanista, a doctor and gladiator trainers when entering gladiator school to commence training. Gladiator trainers who worked in schools were often retired gladiators who specialised in specific combat styles and weapons.There were different types of gladiators who focussed on different fighting styles and weapons that suited them. For example, those who fought in heavy armour weighed them down and were slower which made them require different techniques, while gladiators in light armour were fast and light. The gladiators did not wear Roman military amour since it would send the wrong political signal to the people. Instead they used the weaponry of non-Roman people, to play the role of the enemies. A wooden pole called a palus was used to practice moves with a sword, it allowed a gladiator o practise various strokes such as thrusting, cutting, and slicing.Trained gladiators had the possibility of surviving and even thriving. Some gladiators did not fight more than two or three times a year, and the best of them became popular heroes. After each fight they were paid, plus donations from the crowd and if he was able to outlive his opponents in the arena for 5 years, he would be free and granted citizenship which he could then become a gladiator trainer or a freelance bodyguard. Gladiators were distinguished by the kind of armour they wore, the weapon they use and they style of fighting.Usually gladiators stayed in one category, and matches were played so that they were 2 different categories of gladiators. Some classes are the Eques began their matches on horseback, but ended in hand-to-hand combat. They wore tunics, bronze helmets, round shields and a long sword. Another class was the Hoplomachus who fought with a long spear as well as a short sword or dagger; he wore a visored helmet with crest and long greaves over both legs to protect them since he carried only a small shield, usually round.The attacking class was the Provocator was the most heavily armed and the only one who wore a pectoral covering; the extent of the armour hindered the gladiatorÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to dodge making it slower and agile. However, he was pair with another gladiator to assist him. Battles generally took place on the Roman Forum, until the mid 1st-century BC since there was no permanent amphitheatre. In the imperial period, gladiatorial games were traditionally held twice a year in December and March to mark the end of the year and beginning of spring.Gladiatorial combat involved beast hunting where the Romans had passion for hunting. For fighting beast, Romans preferred big and dangerous animals Ã¢â¬â bears, bulls, elephants and lions from the far reaches of the Roman Empire. Rarely did the animals survive these hunts though occasionally very few animals survived these hunts and defeat the hunter. Many of wild animals would be slaughter in a day. Usually criminals would battle the animals without weapons or armour and were considered the lowest class of participants in the games.Entry to the games was free. It was seen as a citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s right to see the games, not a luxury. However, there was frequently not enough room, leading to angry scuffles outside. Gladiatorial combat can be seen as an education of Roman values, notably, strength, courage, training/discipline, endurance and the contempt o f death. In other words, it demonstrated soldierly values by illustrating military ideas by punishing cowardly gladiators and praising the victors.The games served as a distraction to the general public of Roman society, by entertaining them was shows that kept them in good humour. The spectacles symbolised the emperorÃ¢â¬â¢s power, behaved contrary to their nature, such as the lions which allowed the hares to play in their mouths, and could be interpreted as a clear sign that they had been overwhelmed by a force greater than nature, the emperor. During spectacles, execution of criminals were displayed to make it clear that law and order were upheld, and served as a warning to the consequences to any law breakers.The pain inflicted was partnered with the criminalÃ¢â¬â¢s suffering served as a social order by degrading the criminal for the public to witness and regarded as someone who arrogates to himself certain rights to which he is not entitled. Additionally, provided excitemen t that the Romans enjoyed Ã¢â¬â indulging violence, bloodlust and cruelty, this was significant since the citizens of Rome was uneventful the military pursuits and civil war which had kept them entertained were by then over. Whatever happened in the arena, the spectators were on the winning side. They found comfort for death' wrote Tertullian with typical insight, Ã¢â¬Ëin murder'. Various well know Romans had different attitudes towards the games. Writers like Seneca may have expressed disapproval, but they attended the arena where the games were in process. He described the display as boring and therefore unworthy of the attention of a well-reasoned man. In a letter to a friend, he describes what he saw in the arena during the reign of Emperor Caligula: Ã¢â¬Å"There is nothing so ruinous to good character as to idle away one's time at some spectacle. Vices have a way of creeping in because of the feeling of pleasure that it brings.Why do you think that I say that I personally return from shows greedier, more ambitious and more given to luxury, and I might add, with thoughts of greater cruelty and less humanity, simply because I have been among humans? Ã¢â¬ Seneca was not alone in his view, Cicero, is widely opposed to gladiatorial games, wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"A gladiatorial show is apt to seem cruel and brutal to some eyes, and I incline to think that it is, as now conducted, but in the days when it was criminals who crossed swords in the death struggled there could be no better schooling against pain and deathÃ¢â¬ .Ultimately, Cicero was not totally opposed to the idea of gladiatorial games but the concept of using free men as gladiators was cruel. The attitudes of high culture Romans, Cicero and Seneca differed to those of the general public. Their opinion on gladiatorial games was that they were flawed and inhumane and disapproved of it. A century and a half later, Pliny the younger too had no taste for the brutalities and viciousness of the gladiatorial shows.In his letter to Sempronius Rufus, he states that he wished that they would be abolished in Tome, as they degrade the character and morals of the whole world. Recommendations were given to soldiers to watch gladiatorial displays to take note of how gladiators fought without fear, because they represented the moral qualities which were required for a good soldier. Victorious gladiators conquered death by displaying his superior over his opponent. Even if the gladiator had to die he died the death of a Roman citizen through the sword.Besides, their lives were seen as models of courage and military discipline. One can conclude that, gladiators were criminals, having lost their citizen rights, who had no choice to become a gladiator, although, some citizens freely accepted being a gladiator for the rewards. The public admired and worshiped gladiators even though they were criminals; they displayed great courage and strength in their battles. It took the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s minds of t hings providing them with a great spectacle entertained them and taking their minds of other issues.This was extremely popular to the Romans since they enjoyed violence and cruelty. Executions, made upheld Roman law for the public to witness serving as the possible consequences if an individual breached it. Soldiers took note of the valiance and heroism fighting with no fear displaying qualities essentially for any Roman soldier. Thus, gladiatorial combat was a display of nerve and skill which held a lot of importance in the culture and history of Ancient Rome.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Communications technology is progressing at light-speed, seemingly shrinking our world, as we can now communicate and conduct business in real time around the globe. Through innovations such as high-speed modem technology, businesses and people can share new ideas with friends and colleagues from the farthest lands. As more people and businesses strive to globalize, existing communication technologies are overloading, as they have approached the limitations of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s available hardware. To gain higher speed access to the available information over the Internet, there are many factors one must research, as they ultimately work together. These factors include hardware, choosing an Internet Service Provider (ISP), as well as a modem, which will be used to send and receive the data via the Internet. The intent of this document is to review the latest high-speed technologies for improving information access using the Internet. By understanding these new technologies, one can make a more informed decision when choosing their hardware and ISP. Choosing Hardware for Individual Needs: Computer Choices To gain faster Internet access requires choosing a faster computer that best suits oneÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. In determining the type of computer to purchase, one should first determine the application in which it will be used most. Applications such as word processing, computer games, and Internet access, all require various hardware and operating systems. Today, there are three main choices for computers, which include laptops, PCs, and hand-held devices. Ã¢â¬Å"Until recently, we only needed to decide on the type and speed of the processor that we wanted in our new computer, since most of the Intel Pentium based computers had a data bus with a maximum speed of 66 MHzÃ¢â¬ (PC World, 2000, July, p. 33). Ã¢â¬Å"With the release of the new Intel 100 MHz bus architecture, this has changed, as the new line of Pentium II and Pentium III processors use this new bus instead of the older 66 MHz busÃ¢â¬ (PC World, 2000, July, p. 33). Needless to say, a PC equipped with this much power will su rely increase the communication speed between the processor and components in the computer. The main advantage of a notebook computer, versus a desktop, is the size and portability. Due to their smaller size, notebooks are the computer of choice for people that have limited space in their office or home. Ã¢â¬Å"A typical notebook computer will contain either an Intel Celeron, Pentium III, or AMD K6 processor, which all range in speed, while the more common speeds vary from 600 MHz to 850 MHzÃ¢â¬ (PC World, 2000, July, p. 37). The price of a standard notebook computer typically ranges between $1200 to $1900. Introduced in 1996, handheld computers, also known as Palm Pilots and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), have been gaining in popularity. These devices are portable and are no larger than a palm-size calculator. One of the most popular models on the market today is the Visor, offered in three models, ranging from $149 to $249 (Businessweek Online website, November 15, 1999, p. 192). While the speed of a handheld computer may vary, according to one source, the Palm Vx model runs slightly faster than other handhelds. Ã¢â¬Å"It runs with a 20mhz processor versus the 16mhz found in other modelsÃ¢â¬ (Palmgear website, 2000). Most palms come with standard applications like an address book, calculator, and a date book. Newer palms will also allow the user e-mail capabilities, using a memo pad similar to the Windows notepad. Since Internet access is now available as an option for handheld computers, they are a viable choice for consumers. Choosing an Internet Service Provider (ISP) Next, one needs to decide on an Internet Service Provider (ISP), and whether it is for personal or business use. Today, many companies offer free Internet Service to consumers and businesses. Broadband Digital Group (BDD) offers free dial up service at no additional cost, and is available nationwide. Another free ISP is Bluelight.com, which allows customers to shop online and receive various discounts on items purchased with Kmart. Free ISPs are economical and provide many of the services of fee based ISPs, such as sending and receiving email, web surfing, and online shopping. Ã Although some people find free ISPs to be economical, there are some disadvantages. Free ISPs represent less than 13 percent of the market, and are used as an alternate means to connect online (Fusco, 1999, pars. 4-6). With this, the customer is provided with Internet access, but not the quality service that is provided by most fee-based ISPs. In some cases, free ISPs do not provide consumers with high-spee d delivery, which results in slower connection speeds. According to a recent report by Patricia Fusco, fee-based Internet access service providers are among the elite and provide high quality, high speed, and wireless services. The top rated ISPs are, AT&T WorldNet, EarthLink, Inc., MSN, America Online, CompuServe, and Prodigy. All of these services can provide consumers with high-speed service, good customer service, and technical support (Fusco, 2000a, pars. 2-10). There are, however, some disadvantages with fee-based ISPs, as the monthly billing fees can range from $7.00-$40.00 per month. In addition, providers such as AOL, Prodigy, MSN, and CompuServe have monthly billing plans that must be applied to a customerÃ¢â¬â¢s major credit card or telephone bill. Payment by check is also an option, however, your ISP provider applies a surcharge. Fee based ISPs benefit people and companies who have a need for high capacity, high-speed, and a broad range of features. Providers like AT &T and MSN offer wireless service plans, so consumers have the option of accessing the Internet through their laptops or personal PDAs (Fusco, 2000b, pars. 4-6). In determining which ISP is best, one should consider cost, speed, availability, and technical support. The content of the ISPÃ¢â¬â¢s website, personal services, and customer satisfaction should also be considered. Choosing a High-Speed Modem Technology: Cable vs. DSL Of course, there is much more to achieving high-performance Internet access than just choosing a fast computer and an Internet Service Provider, as one will also need a connection capable of handling all of this bandwidth. Recently, there are new emerging technologies that will allow you to access information over the Internet at blinding speeds. Today, one can choose between new high-speed subscriber lines, such as Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) or Cable Modem, which enables one to access information over 10 times faster than the 56K modem. To utilize DSL will require a DSL-capable modem, which connects to the phone lines already present in the home. Installing DSL is a bit tricky. Although there are installation kits available, it is easier to have the phone company install the service, since installation requires a few components needed for avoiding interference while using the modem and telephone at the same time. The cost of installing DSL runs between $50-$100, while the monthly service fee averages about $80 per month, and includes an ISP (PC World, 2000, May, p. 106). DSL is not yet offered in all areas, however, a recent survey from The Yankee Group estimates that 21% of US households will have access to DSL shortly (PC World, 2000, May, p. 104). Cable Modem is another high-speed solution for accessing the Internet. Cable Modem technology offers similar performance as DSL, yet the technology is a bit different, as it utilizes the existing television cable in the home. Like DSL, Cable Modem access will require a special modem and can be installed by the consumer, or by a local cable company. Expect to pay approximately $100 for the installation, while the monthly service fee averages about $50 per month (PC World, 2000, May, p. 106). The Yankee Group estimates that 41% of US households will have access to Cable Modem technology, which is limited to those households already equipped with cable television services (PC World, 2000, May, p. 104). 87% of Cable Modem users and 86% of DSL users are satisfied with the performance, according to a PC World survey (PC World, 2000, May, p. 116). While the monthly service fees are more for DSL, as compared to Cable Modem, the fees are expected to normalize as the technology becomes more widespread. In reviewing these high-speed technologies, the choice begins to shift from choosing between DSL and Cable Modem, to choosing between either of these two, along with any of the new computers. Summary This study reveals that to gain high speed connectivity, any of the new computer hardware choices are adequate. The key to high speed information access is now governed by your connection, where this situation was revered just a few short years ago. DSL and Cable Modem both offer substantial performance improvements over conventional 56K Internet access. Either choice enables high-speed Internet access, which will be a vital component as more and more on-line information begins to congest the information pipeline. To truly gain high speed Internet access, one must incorporate either of these new modem technologies, along with their choice of hardware, which should be based on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s individual needs. References Businessweek Online website. (November 15, 2000) The Palm is MightierÃ¢â¬ ¦, [Available] Retrieved March 31, 2001, from the World Wide Web: www.businessweek.com Fusco, P. (1999, December). Jupiter: Free ISPs wonÃ¢â¬â¢t replace dial-up access (16 paragraphs). InternetNews Ã¢â¬â ISP News Archives, [Available] Retrieved March 31, 2001, from the World Wide Web: www.internetnews.com Fusco, P. (2000a, May). AT &T Wireless Debuts Free Wireless Internet (15 paragraphs) InternetNews Ã¢â¬â ISP News Archives, [Available] Retrieved March 31, 2001, from the World Wide Web: http://www.internet.news.com/isp-news/article/0,,8_356751,00.html Fusco, P. (2000b, September). J.D. Powers Ranks Big Six ISPs (19 paragraphs). InternetNews Ã¢â¬â ISP News Archives, [Available] Retrieved March 31, 2001, from the World Wide Web: http://www.internetnews.com/isp-news/article/0,,8_460761,00.html Overton, R & Goavec, P. (May 2000). PC World Ã¢â¬â Broadband or Bust, Volume 18, Number 5. 102-108, 112, 116 Palmgear website. (Copyright 2000, internet.com Corp), [Available] Retrieved March 31, 2001, from the World Wide Web: www.palmblvd.com